Glaucoma( kala motia) is complex disease of the eye involving irreversible damage to the optic nerve BEHause of increased intraocular pressure. It is common after 5th decade of life, is genetically determined and is more prevalent in Diabetics. Glaucoma can occur in new born , young children and young adults also.
Glaucoma can be broadly divided into 2 types:

  1. Acute Glaucoma characterized by sudden increase in eye pressure, painful and red eye, decrease in vision, appearance of coloured haloes around lights and rapid deterioration in vision if not treated in time.
  2. Chronic Glaucoma characterized by slow increase in eye pressure causing irreversible damage to the optic nerve associated with slow deterioration in vision and defects in the visual field
Diagnosis of Glaucoma depends onglaucoma

  1. Complete eye examination including eye pressure,
  2. Fundus examination for optic nerve head,
  3. Gonioscopy (Study of angle of eye),
  4. SWAP Perimetry (Field test) and
  5. Retinal Nerve fibre analysis.
  6. Pachymetry (Corneal Thickness),

Retinal Nerve Fibre Analysis ( OCT) determines the thickness of the retinal nerve fibres, which reduces in Glaucoma. Thinning of retinal nerve fibres occurs much before the damage to the fibres and optic nerve causing field defects.
RNFL analysis can detect the possibility of glaucoma 3 to 7 years before the appearance of field defects and detection of Glaucoma with other diagnostic procedures.
Treatment of Glaucoma is possible both with medicines and operation. HRT 3 and Perimetry determine the efficacy of medical treatment in preventing the progress of disease and HRT 3 acts as a guide to maintaining good vision. These tests should be repeated at appropriate interval to judge the efficacy.